For PRC issuers only, a person's associates include any joint venture partner of a cooperative or contractual joint venture (whether or not it is a separate legal entity) where:

(1) the person (being an individual), his immediate family members and/or the trustees; or
(2) the person (being a company), any company which is its subsidiary or holding company or a fellow subsidiary of the holding company, and/or the trustees,

together directly or indirectly hold 30% (or an amount that would trigger a mandatory general offer or establish legal or management control over a business enterprise under the PRC law) or more in the joint venture's capital or assets contributions, or the contractual share of its profits or other income.